This is my personal guide on how to set up a NAS with FreeBSD 13 and ZFS on Pine64's RockPro64.

Installation🔗

  1. Download a FreeBSD 13 image for rockpro64 board (under aarch64 section)

  2. Write an image to a micro SD card (BSD install)

  3. A white LED should indicate that OS has successfully started.

    • If white LED is off this indicates that OS could not boot. Your best option is to debug boot process with serial connection.
    • HDMI output should also be available nowadays. If you screen's resolution is 4K or larger than FreeBSD won't boot.
  4. You can connect to your device with SSH since FreeBSD starts a SSH server by default. Users:

    • root - root
    • freebsd - freebsd
  5. Upon first boot FreeBSD should resize root partition to fill all space on micro SD card.

    freebsd@nas:~ % df -h
    Filesystem          Size    Used   Avail Capacity  Mounted on
    /dev/ufs/rootfs      58G    3.2G     50G     6%    /
    #...
    
    • If this doesn't happen you might need to check your boot log with dmesg.
  6. Enable and start ZFS: service zfs enable && service zfs start

  7. Disable SSH for root:

    • Add/uncomment PermitRootLogin no line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    • service sshd restart
  8. Install pkg

    • pkg help (will prompt to install)
    • If pkg could not be installed then change url in /etc/pkg/FreeBSD.conf (Docs)
  9. Edit hostname in /etc/rc.conf

  10. Enable and start ~ntpd~ service to sync time

    • Add ntpd_sync_on_start=YES to /etc/rc.conf

Users🔗

  1. Create new user and add to wheel group with adduser
  2. Remove freebsd user rmuser freebsd
  3. Change root password passwd

ZFS pool🔗

  1. Find disks with geom disk list

    Geom name: ada0
    Providers:
    1. Name: ada0
       Mediasize: 4000787030016 (3.6T)
       Sectorsize: 512
       Stripesize: 4096
       Stripeoffset: 0
       Mode: r1w1e2
       descr: ST4000VN008-2DR166
       lunid: 5000c500c6ff3710
       ident: ZM41AR5R
       rotationrate: 5980
       fwsectors: 63
       fwheads: 16
    

    If your disks have been used before you might want to delete partitions gpart delete -i 2 ada0. If partition table is invalid you might try to recover it with gpart recover ada0.

  2. Find ashift value to use:

    # For this disk we need ashift of 12 (2^12=4096). Default ashift value is 9 (2^9=512).
    $ diskinfo -v ada0 | grep stripesize
    4096   # stripesize
    
  3. Create a mirror pool zpool create -o ashift=12 -m /mnt/nas nas mirror /dev/diskid/DISK-ZM41AS6T /dev/diskid/...

    • This will mount the nas pool under /mnt/nas
    • Note that we create a pool using disk IDs. This is to prevent disks from being mixed up in case you change how they are connected.
  4. Enable compression on a pool zfs set compression=zstd nas

  5. Create a dataset zfs create nas/roman

    • zfs set quota=900G nas/roman (Allow dataset to use only 900G)
    • zfs set snapdir=visible nas/roman (Show hidden .zfs/snapshosts dir)
  6. Tune ZFS config (optional)

    • Use /boot/loader.conf to configure ZFS (Available options)
    • E.g vfs.zfs.arc_max="2G"

Regular snapshotting🔗

Snapshots will be available under .zfs directory for each dataset.

  1. Manual snapshot:

    • Create zfs snapshot -r nas/roman@2021-01-22 (This creates a recursive snapshot of roman and all descendant datasets)
    • Delete zfs destroy nas/roman@2021-01-22
  2. Install zfstools pkg install zfstools

  3. Edit /etc/crontab

    15,30,45 * * * * root /usr/local/sbin/zfs-auto-snapshot frequent  4
    0        * * * * root /usr/local/sbin/zfs-auto-snapshot hourly   24
    7        0 * * * root /usr/local/sbin/zfs-auto-snapshot daily     7
    14       0 * * 7 root /usr/local/sbin/zfs-auto-snapshot weekly    4
    28       0 1 * * root /usr/local/sbin/zfs-auto-snapshot monthly  12
    

    Ideally, you would use periodic instead.

  4. Enable regular snapshotting for all datasets: zfs set com.sun:auto-snapshot=true nas

  5. List all snapshots and used space: zfs list -rt all

  6. Rollback to snapshot: zfs rollback nas/roman@2021-01-22

I went with running everything from monit.

check program zfs-auto-snapshot-frequent with path "/usr/local/sbin/zfs-auto-snapshot frequent 4"
   if status != 0 then alert
   every "15,30,45 * * * *"
   group cron

Scrubbing🔗

Once in a while you want ZFS to go through your disks and verify that data blocks are not corrupted.

  1. Edit /etc/crontab

    # Scrub ZFS pool once a month
    27       0 1 * * root zpool scrub nas
    

Useful commands🔗

DescriptionCommand
List pools and datasetszfs list
Show pools/pool statuszpool status [nas]
List all snapshotszfs list -rt all
Replace a diskzpool replace nas ada1 ada2
Export a pool to be used on another devicezpool export nas
List pools available for importzpool import
Import a poolzpool import -o altroot=/mnt nas
(will mount under /mnt/nas)
List pools that could use latest ZFS featureszpool upgrade
Upgrade a poolzpool upgrade nas
View pool historyzpool history [nas]
Remove a pool or a datasetzfs destroy nas/roman
Rename a datasetzfs rename nas/roman nas/bond
List dataset propertieszfs get all nas/roman
Compare with a snapshotzfs diff nas/roman@2021-01-22
(Lists which files have been changed/added/removed)

Share ZFS pool with Samba🔗

  1. Install samba pkg install samba413

  2. Add config to /usr/local/etc/smb4.conf

    [global]
    workgroup = HOMENAS
    
    [roman]
    comment = PublicRoman
    path = /mnt/nas/roman
    public = no
    writeable = yes
    write list = @public
    directory mask = 0770
    create mask = 0770
    
  3. service samba_server enable && service samba_server start

  4. Add group pw groupadd public

  5. Add user to group pw groupmod public -M freebsd

  6. Set SMB password for user smbpasswd -a freebsd

  7. Chown the ZFS dataset so that user has access to it

  8. On Windows:

    • Right click in File Explorer and select "Add a network location"
    • Custom location: \\192.168.1.123\roman
    • Use freebsd user and SMB password configured above

Monitoring and email alerting🔗

I decided to go with monit for monitoring and alerting.

  1. pkg install monit
  2. Copy sample configuration cp /usr/local/etc/monitrc.sample /usr/local/etc/monitrc
  3. service monit enable && service monit start
  4. Check that config is correct monit -t
  5. Reload config monit reload
  6. View summary in the terminal monit summary
  7. View summary in the browser http://localhost:2812 (default credentials admin/monit)

Sample script to check for CPU temperature:

#!/usr/bin/env sh

set -e

# Check CPU temperature (located: /etc/monit/scripts/cpu-temp.sh)

TEMP=`sysctl -n hw.temperature.CPU`
echo $TEMP
VALUE=`echo $TEMP | cut -c1-2`
exit $VALUE

Then you can set up an alert in monit that will check for the exit code. It will alert if temperature is higher than 60 degrees. Notice that we also print to the stdout so that monit could show that value in the web UI.

# CPU temperature
check program CPU-temp with path "/etc/monit/scripts/cpu-temp.sh"
   if status > 60 then alert
   if status < 10 then alert
   group temperature

CPU alerting example

If you use monit to run cron tasks then set set daemon 35 # check services at 35 seconds intervals so that cron tasks could run once at a specific minute.

Temperatures🔗

  • Board temperature sysctl hw.temperature or sysctl -a | grep temp
  • HDD temperatures:
    • pkg install smartmontools
    • Verify is supported smartctl -i /dev/ada0 (Should have SMART support is: Enabled)
    • smartctl -A /dev/ada0 | grep -i temperature

ZeroTier🔗

Access your NAS from anywhere without exposing it to the public internet.

  1. Install pkg install zerotier
  2. Enable and start zerotier service
  3. Connect zerotier-cli join [network-id]
  4. Accept this device in the web interface

References🔗